Index of Historic Collectors and Dealers of Cubism
Arensberg, Louise and Walter | Dresden, 1879–Los Angeles, 1953, and Pittsburgh, 1878–Los Angeles, 1954

Intrepid collectors of contemporary art, Louise and Walter Arensberg played an integral role in the promotion of avant-garde art and ideas in the United States. Today their collection forms the nucleus of the modern art holdings at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Raised in Pittsburgh where his father ran a lucrative crucible manufacturing business, Walter studied English and philosophy at Harvard...

Barr, Alfred Hamilton, Jr. | Detroit, 1902–Salisbury, Conn., 1981

As the founding director of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City (1929–40), Alfred H. Barr Jr. played an unparalleled role in promoting the public and scholarly understanding of twentieth-century art. If Cubism first came to the United States in the early 1910s through the efforts of a few pioneering artists and dealers, it was Barr who deepened the comprehension of its historical significance through important exhibitions at MoMA, most notably Cubism and Abstract Art (1936) and Picasso: Forty Years of His Art (1938), the latter of which marked the arrival in New York of the artist’s mural-scale work Guernica (1937). In 1924 Barr began graduate studies in art history...

Beaumont, Count Étienne de | Paris, 1883–Paris, 1956
Count Étienne de Beaumont was one of the great aristocratic patrons of modern painting and music in Paris during les années folles (the period between the two World Wars). An enthusiast for the avant-garde—among other things, he supported Serge Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes and staged some of the first jazz performances...
Berg, Christian | Förslövsholm, Sweden, 1893–1976
Christian Berg was a Swedish painter and sculptor associated with a group of pioneering Scandinavian artists who studied under Fernand Léger and Amédée Ozenfant at the Académie Moderne (1924-1931) housed in Léger’s studio at 86, rue Notre-Dame-des Champs in Montparnasse in the 1920s. Considered one of the most innovative Swedish sculptors of the early twentieth century, Berg made significant contributions to the development of abstract art in his native country. In 1925 Berg settled in Paris...
Brenner, Michael | 1885–1969

See Washington Square Gallery

Bucher, Jeanne | Guebwiller, Haut-Rhin, 1872–Paris, 1946
A native of Alsace, Jeanne Bucher embarked on a new career when she was in her forties, becoming an art collector and dealer in Paris. Previously, she had worked in several Swiss libraries and then served as a nurse during World War I. After moving to Paris in 1920, her Alsatian friends and the artist Jean Lurçat welcomed her into their artistic and literary circle. Five years later, at the age of fifty-one, she opened a library-gallery...
Callery, Mary (Meric) | New York, 1903–Paris, 1977
Mary (Meric) Callery was an American sculptor associated with modernism and post–World War II Abstract Expressionism. She is best known for her playful, abstract and figurative metal statues created after her return to the United States from France in 1940. Born into an affluent family in 1903 and raised in Pittsburgh, Callery studied sculpture with Edward McCarten...
Coady, Robert J. | 1876–1921

See Washington Square Gallery

Cooper, Douglas | London, 1911–London, 1984

A patron, connoisseur, and scholar of Cubism, Douglas Cooper was also the first to write a history of major Cubist collectors. The chapter, titled “Early Purchasers of True Cubist Art,” was published in the catalogue that accompanied the exhibition The Essential Cubism 1907–1920 (1983) at the Tate Gallery. Cooper acquired many of his own Cubist works directly from the collectors mentioned in the catalogue or from their estate sales. Born in London to a wealthy family that had made a fortune in Australia through real estate and shipping businesses, Cooper studied art history...

Crotti, Jean | Bulle, Switzerland, 1878–Paris, 1958
Jean Crotti was a Swiss-born painter, husband and collaborator of Suzanne Duchamp and brother-in-law to Marcel Duchamp. Beginning his studies at Munich’s School of Decorative Arts, Crotti moved to Paris and enrolled in the prestigious Académie Julian in 1901. Soon abandoning academic training in art, Crotti began to exhibit regularly in large public art exhibitions, the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne, between 1907 and 1909. After dabbling with primitivist and Fauvist painting, around 1912 Crotti’s work turned toward Cubism...
Doucet, Jacques (-Antoine) | Paris, 1853–Paris, 1929
French fashion designer and pioneer of haute couture at the turn of the century, Jacques Doucet was one of the most important art patrons and collectors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His first collecting interests focused on French eighteenth-century art, and after 1912 on French modern and contemporary art. In his collecting practice, Doucet considered the fine and applied arts of equal importance and...
Dreier, Katherine | Brooklyn, New York, 1877–Milford, Conn., 1952
Katherine Dreier was a painter, art critic, exhibition organizer, and devoted collector and patron of contemporary art, whose greatest contribution to the history of art was the “experimental museum” for modern art, the Société Anonyme, which she founded as its president in 1920. Dreier grew up in a family of wealthy German immigrants in the politically and culturally liberal social milieu in Brooklyn Heights, and from an early age, was active in the women’s suffrage movement. She studied at the Brooklyn Art School and traveled Europe in the early 1900s, visiting the collections of Leo and Gertrude Stein...
Duchamp, Marcel | Blainville-Crevon, France, 1887–Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1968
Marcel Duchamp is widely considered to be one of the most important European artists of the twentieth century. He is known primarily for his invention of the “readymade” in 1915, in which an everyday object is proposed as a work of art. Duchamp notoriously withdrew from exhibiting and selling his artworks in the traditional circuits of the art world, and studiously avoided making a profit through his art. However, paradoxically, throughout his life he was involved directly in the art market as a dealer...
Dudensing, F. Valentine | New York, 1892–Thenon, France, 1967

See Valentine Gallery

Dutilleul, Roger | Paris, 1873–Paris, 1956
Roger Dutilleul was a French industrialist who became one of the top art collectors in France during the first half of the twentieth century. An attentive, elegant man, he was known for purchasing works of art directly from exhibitions—including the seminal 1908 show of Georges Braque’s work at Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler’s gallery—and he provided vital support for young artists whose work was still widely rejected by the public and the art establishment. An enthusiast for modern art, he invested most of his income in building his collection, the core of which was assembled from 1907 to the 1920s. Dutilleul particularly appreciated the work of Paul Cézanne...
Effort Moderne, Galerie L' | Paris, 1918–1941
The Parisian collector, dealer, and publicist Léonce Rosenberg (1879–1947) opened Galerie L’Effort Moderne in January 1918 at 19, rue de la Baume. For some years after World War I, the gallery was the leading force in promoting avant-garde art and Cubism. The first solo exhibition at the gallery, which featured the work of Auguste Herbin, was held in March 1918. It was followed by individual presentations...
Eichmann, Dr. Ingeborg (also Pudelko-Eichmann) | Arnau/Elbe, Czech Republic, 1907–Zürich, 1980
The art historian, critic, and collector Dr. Ingeborg Eichmann began acquiring Cubist and other modernist art during the 1930s while pursuing her graduate studies in art history at the University of Zürich. Her collection included several seminal Cubist works by Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, and Pablo Picasso. Eichmann was born in Sudetenland...
Erbslöh, Adolf | New York, 1881–Irschenhausen, Germany, 1947

Adolf Erbslöh was a German painter who early in his career participated in progressive art circles in Munich that brought him in direct contact with the international avant-garde, among them...

From the late 1910s to the end of the 1920s, Germaine Everling was at the center of the burgeoning Parisian Dada movement. In 1917, Everling was introduced to the painter, poet, and Dadaist Francis Picabia by her friend, the Mexican painter Georges de Zayas. Although married, Everling embarked upon a whirlwind romantic affair with Picabia (who was himself married to Gabrielle Buffet since 1909) and entered the social circle of artists and poets including Marcel Duchamp, Tristan Tzara, and André Breton. She became one of Dada’s most effective proselytizers in the early 1920s...

Gallatin, Albert E. | Villanova, Pa., 1881–New York, 1952
A. E. Gallatin’s New York–based Gallery of Living Art was the first public collection of modern art in the country. It opened in late 1927, preceding the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)’s opening by two years. A. E. Gallatin was the great-grandson of Albert Gallatin, the Secretary of Treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison and a co-founder of New York University. Bolstered by an inheritance from the family banking fortune, A. E. abandoned...
Giedion-Welcker, Dr. Carola | Cologne, 1893–Zurich, 1979
Carola Giedion-Welcker was a collector and historian of art and literature. She wrote one of the first serious studies of twentieth-century sculpture. Titled Modern Plastic Art (1937), the book stressed the central importance of Cubism for the development of modern art. Giedion-Welcker earned her doctorate in 1922 after studying with the eminent German art historian Heinrich Wölfflin. She would go on to produce several important works on modern culture...
Groult, André Pierre Emile and Nicole | Paris, 1884–Paris, 1967 and Paris, 1887–Paris, 1967
André Groult was a French furniture and interior designer associated with post-Art Nouveau decorative arts trends including the Art Deco movement. His wife, Nicole Groult (née Pauline Marie Poiret), was a couturier who operated a successful fashion house. The Groults’s social and professional activities frequently intertwined. Also well-connected within Paris’s art scene, the Groults established personal and professional relationships with numerous artists, collectors, and dealers, including...
Guillaume, Paul | Paris, 1891–Paris, 1934
The French collector Paul Guillaume belonged to a generation of Parisian art dealers who became interested in Cubism just before World War I. His collection, today known as the Jean Walter and Paul Guillaume Collection, is held at the Musée de l’Orangerie in Paris. Part of the avant-garde circle that surrounded the French art critic and poet Guillaume Apollinaire, with whom he shared an interest in African sculpture, Guillaume opened his first gallery...
The Kahnweiler Syndicate, which operated under the pseudonym “Grassat,” was a group of collectors who sought to purchase lots at four public auctions held at the Hôtel Drouot in Paris between June 1921 and May 1923. Also known as the Kahnweiler sequestration sales, the auctions represented the liquidation...
Kahnweiler, Daniel-Henry | Mannheim, 1884–Paris, 1979
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler was a banker, writer, publisher, and art dealer who became the pioneering champion of Cubism. He opened his first gallery in Paris at 28, rue Vignon in the spring of 1907. Kahnweiler primarily presented rotating selections of work by Georges Braque, André Derain, Pablo Picasso, Maurice de Vlaminck, and other artists, but he did mount a few exhibitions, including one for Kees van Dongen in March 1908 and a seminal show for Braque in November 1908. Kahnweiler signed his first exclusive contract...
Kickert, Johan Conrad Theodoor, or Kikkert | The Hague, 1882–Paris, 1965
An early champion of modern art, the Dutch painter and critic Conrad Kickert (or Kikkert) played a key role in bringing Cubism to the Netherlands. In particular, he initiated and financed the juried international exhibition society known as Moderne Kunstkring (Modern Art Circle), which was founded in Amsterdam on November 28, 1910. The group, which included the artists Jan Toorop, Jan Sluyters, and Piet Mondrian, promoted close dialogue and interchange between French and avant-garde circles through organized exhibitions that presented the newest French artistic trends to the Dutch public. Moderne Kunstkring’s first show was held...
Koerfer, Dr. Jacques C. | Cologne, 1902–Ascona, Switzerland, 1990

Dr. Jacques C. Koerfer was a successful entrepreneur who began collecting art in the early 1930s. The core of his collection was assembled between 1957 and 1989, when Koerfer and his second wife, Christina, were living in Switzerland. Initially, Koerfer was interested in the work of Dutch masters like Pieter de Hooch, Philips Wouwerman, and Antonis Mor, but he later developed a fondness for French Impressionist and post-Impressionist painting...

Kramář, Vincenc | Vysoké nad Jizerou, Czech Republic, 1877–Prague, 1960
Vincenc Kramář was a leading collector of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso and was one of the earliest art historians to intensively study Cubism. Through his collection and his published writing, he played a central role in promoting Cubism in Prague and shaped its reception among Czech artists and audiences. Kramář trained in art history both at Prague University and in Vienna at the Institute for Austrian Historical Research, where he studied with Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoff and earned his doctorate in 1902. He came into contact with Cubism...
La Roche, Dr. Raoul Albert | Basel, 1889–Basel, 1965
Dr. Raoul Albert La Roche was a Swiss banker who moved to Paris in 1911 and established friendships with the co-founders of Purism: the Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the French artist Amédée Ozenfant. In Paris, he amassed an important collection of Purist and Cubist works. The core of La Roche’s collection was assembled...
Lange, Hermann | Odenkirchen, Germany, 1847–Berlin, 1942

A prominent art collector, Hermann Lange was a second-generation German textile manufacturer, who began his career at his father’s silk mill, the C. Lange Seidenwarenfabrik, in Krefeld, in North Rhine-Wesphalia. An early member of the Deutscher Werkbund (1907–34; 1950–present), an association of German architects, designers, and manufacturers, Lange embraced the Werkbund-initiated reform movement, which sought to improve the aesthetic qualities of German industrial design. While still working for his father, Lange commissioned...

Lefèvre, André Amédée Nicolas | Paris, 1883–Paris, 1963
André Amédée Nicolas Lefèvre was a successful financier and stockbroker who retired in 1927 at the age of forty-four in order to fully devote himself to collecting art and books. His collection was especially strong in Cubism, but he also collected art from Africa and the Pacific Islands. Lefèvre was advised in his collecting by...
Level, André | Paris, 1863–Paris, 1946
André Level was a Parisian businessman, critic, and art collector from a prominent French family of industrialists who established a reputation as a champion of the avant-garde and expert on African art. The owner of Galerie Percier, he is also known for La Peau de l’Ours, a highly successful, speculative investment venture that purchased the work of modern and contemporary artists. While serving as a secrétaire general...
Lhote, André | Bordeaux, 1885–Paris, 1962
André Lhote was a French painter, theoretician, critic, and art teacher who was closely associated with Cubism. Lhote’s artistic training was grounded in decorative arts, which he pursued at the École des Beaux-Arts in his native Bordeaux from 1898 to 1906, before turning his full attention to painting. He moved to Paris in 1906...
German novelist, essayist, and poet, Mechtilde Lichnowsky actively participated in Germany’s early twentieth-century cultural and intellectual life. She supported the literary and artistic avant-garde and is recognized as an early collector of...
Lipchitz, Jacques | Druskieniki, Lithuania, 1891–Capri, 1973
The sculptor Jacques Lipchitz is best known for the Cubist works he made in Paris during the early 1900s. As a collector he was mainly interested in African art, which had a profound influence on his work, but he also acquired modern works from artist friends, particularly Pablo Picasso. Lipchitz moved to Paris from his native Lithuania in October 1909...
Loeb, Pierre | Paris, 1897–Paris, 1964

Through his establishment, Galerie Pierre, the dealer Pierre Loeb promoted the work of modern artists, including Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró. Before World War II, Loeb’s gallery was an important venue for Surrealist and Cubist art. Pierre and his twin brother, Edouard, were born to a Jewish family in 1897 in Paris. After World War I, Pierre was influenced by a family friend...

Lurçat, Jean | Bruyères, France, 1892–Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, 1966

Jean Lurçat was a painter and designer of modernist tapestries whose work was in close dialogue with the Cubism of Picasso and Georges Braque. Early in his career, Lurçat painted in a style inspired by Fauvism and founded the journal Les feuilles de Mai (The leaves of May)...

Masurel, Jean | 1908–1991
The French textile manufacturer Jean Masurel inherited an important collection of modern art, including extensive holdings of Cubist works, from his maternal uncle, Roger Dutilleul. During subsequent decades and influenced by his uncle, Masurel enlarged the collection...
Matisse, Pierre | Bohain-en-Vermandois, France, 1900–St.-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France, 1989

See Pierre Matisse Gallery

Mattioli, Gianni | Milan, 1903–Milan, 1977
Gianni Mattioli was an Italian dealer of raw cotton with a keen interest in literature and fine arts, especially modern and contemporary Italian art. As a collector, he favored the early Italian avant-garde, focusing in particular on early Futurism and Pittura metafisica and later also on Giorgio Morandi. He would eventually own more than 30 examples of Futurist art alone. Mattioli’s involvement in the art world commenced in Milan in the early 1920s...
McCarty-Cooper, William Augustine | Miami Springs, Fla., 1938–Los Angeles, 1991
William (Billy) Augustine McCarty-Cooper was an American interior designer and decorator who began his career working for the British decorator David Nightingale Hicks. In 1965 he opened his own design firm, William McCarty Associates, in London. His clients included many well-known figures, such as Vidal Sassoon, for whom he designed hairstyling salons. In the late 1970s he was commissioned to create French eighteenth century interiors for Didier Aaron Gallery. McCarty-Cooper was romantically involved with the prominent collector...
Mesens, Edouard Léon Théodore | Brussels, 1903–Brussels, 1971
A native of Brussels, Edouard Léon Théodore Mesens was an author, artist, publisher, curator, and dealer associated with the Dada and Surrealist movements, which he tirelessly promoted throughout his lifetime. His private collection, which probably originated in the early 1930s, included works by René Magritte (in 1932 he purchased around 150 works by the artist), Georges Braque, Paul Klee, Pablo Picasso, and Kurt Schwitters. Initially trained as a musician, early on Mesens turned to...
Miestchaninoff, Oscar | Vitebsk, 1884–Los Angeles, 1956

Miestchaninoff was a Russian sculptor active in France during the first half of the twentieth century. A member of Parisian avant-garde circles since the 1910s, he amassed an art collection that included works by...

Morozov, Ivan | Moscow, 1871–Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic, 1921
Ivan Morozov was one of two collectors and art patrons in Russia who took a significant interest in Cubism, the other being Sergei Shchukin. Both came from families of wealthy industrialists and carried on a friendly rivalry, each aspiring to purchase the works of the foremost European artists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Morozov accumulated particularly extensive holdings of paintings by Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, and Paul Gauguin, yet his collection also included works by Pablo Picasso. He owned one of Picasso’s most important Cubist portraits...
Müller, Josef | Solothurn, Switzerland, 1887–Solothurn, 1977
Josef Oskar Müller was a son of prominent Swiss industrialist Josef Adolf Müller (1834-1894). Although trained as an engineer, he devoted his life to art. He was a painter, curator, and collector of modern and non-Western art. He was also an active member of the art community in his native Solothurn, the site of his family’s manufacturing firm, Müller and Schweizer, in northwestern Switzerland. He began acquiring art in 1907, also the year of his first visit to Paris, and gradually assembled an extensive collection of work by modern artists with particular strength in Swiss art. Müller received an engineering degree...
Ozenfant, Amédée | Saint-Quentin, France 1886–Cannes 1966

A French artist, writer, and teacher active primarily in France and the United States during the first half of the twentieth century, Amédée Ozenfant is best known as co-author of the art manifesto Après le Cubisme (1918) and co-inventor with the architect Le Corbusier of the art movement Purism...

Max Pellequer was a nephew of the dealer and businessman André Level. Along with his brother, Raoul, he was an investor...

Percier, Galerie | Paris, 1922 – 1930s

See André  Level

Picabia, Francis | Paris, 1879–Paris, 1953

Francis Picabia’s career is defined by varied activities as a painter, poet, editor, and international impresario of the avant-garde. Picabia was born into a wealthy Spanish-French family in Paris, and from a young age threw himself into the most extreme currents of modern art. He met the Impressionist Camille Pissarro in 1902 and produced landscapes under the elder painter’s influence, before moving successively through Cubism and Dada. Picabia was included by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire in the latter’s important book The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations (1913)...

Pierre Matisse Gallery | New York, 1931–1989

The Pierre Matisse Gallery was located in New York and named after its founder, the younger son of the artist Henri Matisse. It specialized in modern and contemporary European and American art.  Pierre Matisse (1900–1989) began his career as a dealer in 1923...

Poiret, Paul | Paris, 1879–Paris, 1944

Paul Poiret was an influential fashion designer and Parisian socialite who as a pioneer of the lifestyle design concept, expanded his fashion business into fragrance and home décor. Also a painter, collector, and patron of the arts, Poiret assembled a sizable collection of early Cubist works before...

Quinn, John | Tiffin, Ohio, 1870–New York, 1924

The American finance lawyer John Quinn was one of the most important collectors of modern and avant-garde art of his generation. A well-known figure in New York’s progressive art circles, he spearheaded projects that promoted vanguard artists. Between 1911 and 1924, Quinn assembled a collection of approximately 2,500 paintings, works on paper, and sculptures...

Reber, Gottlieb Friedrich | Oerlinghausen, Germany, 1880–Lausanne, 1959
Dr. Gottlieb Friedrich Reber was a German textile magnate, prominent art collector, and occasional art dealer. Originally interested in nineteenth-century French art, Reber turned his attention almost exclusively to Cubism after World War I. By 1929 he was considered one of the movement’s preeminent collectors; he owned approximately two hundred paintings, sculptures, and works on paper by Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, and Pablo Picasso. When he began collecting around 1906, Reber focused...
Richet, Alfred | Paris, 1893–1992

Alfred Richet was a French collector, dealer, and critic with a focus on early twentieth-century art centered in Paris. Richet was one of seven children of Charles Richet and his wife Amélie (née Aubry). Charles, himself the son of a highly respected surgeon, won the Nobel Prize for his research on anaphylaxis in 1913. Richet showed interest in the arts from adolescence, and an early catalyst for Richet’s focus on modern art was...

Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich | Bar Harbor, Me., 1908–New York, 1979
Nelson A. Rockefeller was an accomplished businessman, politician, art collector, and philanthropist. Rockefeller graduated from Dartmouth College in 1930 and worked for family controlled enterprises, including Rockefeller Center and Chase National Bank (today Chase Manhattan). He also held numerous public offices, including governor of New York...
Rosenberg, Léonce | Paris, 1879–Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1947
Léonce Rosenberg was a French art dealer who championed modern European art in the years around World War I, providing crucial support for the Cubist artists in a period of great political and personal turbulence. First independently and then under the auspices of his gallery L’Effort Moderne, which he opened in March 1918 during the last months of the War, Rosenberg became an important collector, dealer, and advocate of Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, and Picasso. The son of an art and antiquities dealer, at the age of thirty-one Rosenberg opened his first gallery, Haute Époque in 1910 at 19 rue de la Baume, Paris, specializing in French antiques, Chinese art, and Persian miniatures, among other things. His personal taste, however, increasingly tended toward the most audacious developments in modern painting...
Rothschild, Nannette and Herbert M. | 1897–1979, and 1891–1976
Herbert and Nannette Rothschild were American collectors based in New York who acquired mostly modern European art. A furniture manufacturer and distributor for the Herrmann Furniture Company, John Widdicomb Company, and John Stuart, Inc., Herbert is credited with helping to introduce modern Scandinavian (especially Danish) and English furniture to the American market in the 1950s. Herbert and Nannette married in 1917. The couple’s daughter, Judith, was an artist and she had a major influence on their collecting, which began in the 1930s...
Sadleir, Michael | 1888-1957
Michael Sadleir (née Michael Thomas Harvey Sadler) was an English bibliographer, biographer, novelist, and preeminent book collector of nineteenth century fiction and non-fiction. The son of Sir Michael Ernest Sadler, a noted educationalist, social reformer, and modern art collector, Sadleir changed his last name....
Sadler, Sir Michael Ernest | Yorkshire, England, 1861–Oxford, England, 1943
Sir Michael Ernest Sadler was a historian, an influential reformer of secondary education, a champion of public schools, and a noted collector and promoter of modern art in Great Britain. He was dedicated to making his extensive collection, which included many Cubist works, available to the public. Educated at Trinity College in Oxford (1880–85), Sadler...
Sagot, Clovis | ?–1913, Paris

Sagot is considered to be the first promoter of Cubist works, forestalling Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler by several years. He was also known for being Pablo Picasso’s first regular patron. Sagot may have been a clown in the Medrano circus before joining his brother, the famous print dealer, Edmond Sagot, in Paris. Around 1903, he opened his own antiques shop...

Saidenberg Gallery | New York, 1950–1999
The New York–based Saidenberg Gallery focused primarily on modern European art. It was established and managed by Eleanore Block (1911–1999) and Daniel Saidenberg (1906–1997). In addition to working as art dealers, the Saidenbergs were art collectors and supporters of the arts and public education. Their gallery had two other locations before its final address at 1018 Madison Avenue at 78th Street, and its clients included the Museum of Modern Art, David Rockefeller, and Sally and Victor Ganz. Eleanore was a professional dancer from Chicago...
Saidenberg, Eleanore and Daniel | Chicago, 1911–New York, 1999, and Winnipeg, Canada, 1906–New York, 1997

See also Saidenberg Gallery.

Shchukin, Sergei | Moscow, 1854–Paris, 1936

Sergei Shchukin was the most important Russian collector of early twentieth-century Western art, thanks to his vast wealth, eye for quality, and cutting-edge taste. He once said: “If a picture gives you a psychological shock, buy it. It’s a good one.” His collection, along with that of fellow modern art collector, Ivan Morozov, form the core of the collections at the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. After assuming control of the family cloth business in 1890, Shchukin made frequent trips...

Stein, Gertrude | Allegheny, Pa., 1874–Paris, 1946
Gertrude Stein was an American writer and early important collector of avant-garde art who was based in Paris. She is recognized as one of the earliest champions of Cubism. Raised and educated in Europe and the United States, Gertrude graduated from Radcliff College in 1897...
Stein, Leo | Allegheny, Pa., 1872–Settignano, Italy, 1947
Leo Stein was an American writer and art critic. Active in Europe and the United States, he is best known as an early champion and collector of Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso. Stein is also credited with introducing his siblings, younger sister Gertrude and older brother Michael, to modern art. Stein studied law at Harvard University...
Stieglitz, Alfred | Hoboken, 1864–New York, 1946
Alfred Stieglitz was an American photographer who was instrumental in raising photography into an accepted art form. He was also a champion of modern art, and through his gallery, nicknamed “291,” he introduced many avant-garde artists to the American public. Stieglitz’s collection of paintings, works on paper, sculpture, and photographs became the foundation for the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s modern collection. Between 1879 and 1881 Stieglitz attended the College of the City of New York...
Sweeney, James Johnson | Brooklyn, New York, 1900–New York, 1986
As an art historian, curator, and museum director, James Johnson Sweeney was a tireless advocate for the most adventurous strains of modern art. Sweeney traveled to Paris in the early 1920s, took a degree in literature at Cambridge University, and spent the 1930s as an editor for the English-language, Paris-based journal Transition. For Transition, Sweeney had a hand in editing and publishing work by James Joyce, Marcel Duchamp, and many other members of the European avant-garde. In these years, Sweeney also wrote eloquent defenses of modern art...

Thompson, G. David | Newark, Ohio, 1899–Pittsburgh, 1965
George David Thompson was an American investment banker, industrialist, and renowned collector of modern art based in Pittsburgh. Over the course of his lifetime, he amassed a large collection of modern art, American folk art, and Islamic art. After obtaining an engineering degree from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1920, Thompson turned to finance...
Titus, Edward W. | Podgorze, Poland, 1870–1952
Edward W. Titus was a Polish-born American expatriate, collector, publisher and book dealer based in Paris after the end of World War I. Born Arthur Ameisen, Titus immigrated to Pittsburg in 1891 and became an American citizen three years later. In 1904 or 1905, he moved again to Melbourne, Australia, and in response to anti-Semitic attitudes there, changed his name. Soon after meeting him, the American cosmetics entrepreneur Helena Rubinstein hired Titus as her marketing and publicity manager, and he wrote magazine ad copy for her cosmetics business. Two years later, they relocated to London, married, and had their first son, Roy Valentine Titus. In 1912, after the birth of Horace Titus, they moved to Paris, where Rubinstein bankrolled Titus’ publishing endeavors in modernist...
Tremaine, Emily and Burton G., Sr. | Butte, Mont., 1908 – Madison, Conn., 1987, and Cleveland, 1901 – Rancho Mirage, Calif., 1991
Emily Hall Tremaine and Burton G. Tremaine Sr. were influential American collectors of modern and contemporary art. They acquired most of the four hundred works in their collection between the mid-1940s and the 1970s. The scope of their holdings reflects the Tremaines’ close engagement with the emerging art scene at home and abroad. In addition to acquiring examples from major European avant-garde movements, the Tremaines collected Abstract Expressionist, Pop, and Minimalist art. In the 1980s and ‘90s the collection was gradually dispersed through private and public sales. Emily developed an interest in art...
Tzanck, Daniel | Tbilisi, Georgia, 1874–Paris, 1964

Daniel Tzanck was a Paris-based collector, enthusiast of modern art, and dentist. If his name is familiar within the history of European avant-garde art, it is primarily due to Marcel Duchamp, who involved Tzanck in one of his most Dadaistic works of art, the Tzanck Check (1919; Collection Arturo Schwarz, Milan, Promised gift to the Israel Museum, Jerusalem). Tzanck was well known for showing his support for struggling young artists by accepting works of art in lieu of payment for his dental services. Having visited Tzanck for dental work, Duchamp chose to pay his bill of $115 with a check, slightly bigger than life-size, entirely hand-drawn and hand-written. That this forged document presented as a work of art was gladly accepted by the dentist, who was friends with the Duchamp family, testifies to Tzanck’s avid support...

Tzara, Tristan | Moinesti, Romania, 1896–Paris, 1963
Tristan Tzara’s importance for the history of modern art is split equally between his creative output as a poet, playwright, and performer and his activities as a publisher, manifesto writer, and organizer. As a collector, he acquired large holdings of photographs, drawings, and collages by an international group of artists, often as gifts or exchanges. Born Samuel Rosenstock, Tzara spent the First World War in neutral Switzerland, where he founded the Zurich Dada movement in 1916. During this time, he invented an eccentric persona for himself...
Uhde, Wilhelm | Friedeberg in der Neumark, Germany, 1874–Paris, 1947
Wilhelm Uhde was a German art historian, collector, dealer, and curator. He began collecting as early as 1905 and was an early supporter of Cubism and Fauvism. Uhde started out as a law student, but eventually abandoned it in favor of art history, which he studied in Munich and Florence before moving to Paris in 1904. There, he befriend Pablo Picasso...
Valentine Gallery | New York, 1926–1947
Within two years of its opening in New York in February 1926, the F. Valentine Dudensing Gallery was dubbed a “temple of modernism” by a leading critic. The gallery served as an important source for works by modern artists, including Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse during its two decades of operation. Francis Valentine Dudensing (1892–1967), the gallery’s founder, graduated from Dartmouth College in 1913...
Vollard, Ambroise | Île de la Réunion, 1866–Versailles, 1939

As a “picture dealer” Ambroise Vollard was known for taking risks by championing the work of young, audacious artists. The evolution of Vollard’s Paris gallery—from his first efforts in 1890, selling modern art out of his seventh-floor apartment, to his legendary gallery at 6, rue Laffitte, where he was based from 1896 to 1924—ran parallel to the rapid shifts in both the reception of European modern painting and the art market, as it transitioned from a state-run Salon system to a network of independent dealers. Born to a bourgeois family in French colonial Île de la Réunion, Vollard arrived in France in November 1885...

Washington Square Gallery | New York, 1914–1917; 1917-1919
Washington Square Gallery in New York was established in 1914 by sculptor Michael Brenner (1885–1969) and painter Robert J. Coady (1881–1921). It specialized in avant-garde art. Brenner and Coady likely met in Paris sometime...
Weill, Berthe | Paris, 1865–Paris, 1951
Berthe Weill was the first and only female dealer to promote avant-garde artists at the beginning of the twentieth century. She was Picasso’s first dealer, before he switched his allegiance to Clovis Sagot, whose shop at 46 rue Lafitte Weill began renting in 1920. Born into a middle-class family, Weill apprenticed...
Weyhe Gallery | New York, 1919–2003
Weyhe Gallery (also known as Weyhe Gallery and Bookstore) was a New York–based print and art bookshop. It operated from 1919 to 1923 at 710 Lexington Avenue, and then from 1923 until 2003 in a nineteenth-century, four-story townhouse at 794 Lexington Avenue. During its existence it was considered an institution within the New York art world and served as a meeting place for art dealers and collectors interested in modern art. The gallery’s founder, Erhard Weyhe (1882–1972), began his career...
Weyhe, Erhard | Salzwedel, Germany, 1882–Digby, Nova Scotia, 1972

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White, Vera and Samuel S. | St. Louis, 1888–1966, and Philadelphia, 1876–Bryn Mawr, Pa., 1952
Samuel S. White III and his wife, Vera, were important collectors in Philadelphia during the early decades of the twentieth century. Generous lenders to the inaugural exhibition at the new building of the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1928, the couple bequeathed their entire collection—nearly 400 objects, ranging from nineteenth-century paintings to African masks, illuminated manuscripts, and modern art—to the museum in 1967. Heir to the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company fortune, White trained...
Zak, Galerie | Paris, ca. 1928–1960s
Galerie Zak was based in Paris and specialized in modern European and Latin American art. Owned by Hedvige Zak (born Jadwiga Kohn or Kon, Nasielsk, Poland, February 6, 1885–Auschwitz, 1943), the gallery was an important venue for contemporary art exhibitions. Hedvige was married to Eugène Zak (born Eugeniusz Zak), a prominent Polish painter...
Zak, Hedvige | 1885–1943

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Zayas, Marius de | Veracruz, Mexico, 1880–Stamford, Conn., 1961

As an artist, journalist, collector, and dealer, Marius de Zayas played a crucial and multifaceted role in the arrival of European modern art in the United States. In collaboration with the photographer Alfred Stieglitz and his New York City gallery, 291, de Zayas organized a number of important exhibitions, including the first North American show of Pablo Picasso’s work (1911) and a display about the influence of African art on European modernism (1914). As a writer for publications that included 291 and Camera Work, de Zayas was a tireless champion of Cubist and post-Cubist art. De Zayas started as a caricaturist for the two Veracruz newspapers founded by his father, the poet laureate Rafael de Zayas. After his family relocated to New York City in 1907, de Zayas resumed his work...

Zwemmer, Gallery | London, 1929–1968
Established by Anton Zwemmer (1892–1979), the Zwemmer Gallery was as an extension of the dealer’s bookstore and publishing business based in London. When the gallery first opened in 1929 at 26 Litchfield Street, it was one of a handful of venues in London that promoted the international avant-garde. As such, it quickly gained a following among artists, collectors, and scholars who were interested in modern art. Born in Holland, Zwemmer was a book dealer, publisher, art dealer, and collector. He moved to London...